The Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are two significant international agreements that aim to address the issue of climate change. The two agreements share many similarities and differences. This article will explore the comparison of the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. It is a legally binding agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Protocol aimed to reduce the emission of six greenhouse gases namely carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in developed countries by 5.2% compared to 1990 levels by 2012.
On the other hand, the Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 and entered into force in 2016. The Paris Agreement is a non-binding agreement under the UNFCCC that seeks to reduce emissions, limit the rise of global temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement sets voluntary targets and encourages all countries to take action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
While the Kyoto Protocol targeted only developed countries, the Paris Agreement includes all countries, both developing and developed. The Paris Agreement also includes provisions for climate finance and technology transfer to help developing countries cope with the impacts of climate change.
Another significant difference between the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement is the approach to emission reduction. The Kyoto Protocol used a top-down approach where emission reduction targets were set for each country and enforced through a cap-and-trade system. In contrast, the Paris Agreement uses a bottom-up approach, where each country sets its own targets and policies to reduce emissions.
In conclusion, both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are essential international agreements that aim to address the issue of climate change. While the Kyoto Protocol was more focused on developed countries, the Paris Agreement includes all countries and uses a voluntary approach to reduce emissions. The world needs more action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and it is essential for countries to work together to achieve this goal.